You are required to read and agree to the below before accessing a full-text version of an article in the IDE article repository.

The full-text document you are about to access is subject to national and international copyright laws. In most cases (but not necessarily all) the consequence is that personal use is allowed given that the copyright owner is duly acknowledged and respected. All other use (typically) require an explicit permission (often in writing) by the copyright owner.

For the reports in this repository we specifically note that

  • the use of articles under IEEE copyright is governed by the IEEE copyright policy (available at
  • the use of articles under ACM copyright is governed by the ACM copyright policy (available at
  • technical reports and other articles issued by M‰lardalen University is free for personal use. For other use, the explicit consent of the authors is required
  • in other cases, please contact the copyright owner for detailed information

By accepting I agree to acknowledge and respect the rights of the copyright owner of the document I am about to access.

If you are in doubt, feel free to contact

Principles for Value Annotation Languages


Research group:

Publication Type:

Conference/Workshop Paper


14th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis


Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik, Dagstuhl Publishing, Germany




Tools for code-level program analysis need formats to express various properties, like relevant properties of the environment where the analysed code will execute, and the analysis results. Different WCET analysis tools typically use tool-specific annotation languages for this purpose. These languages are often geared towards expressing properties that the particular tool can handle rather than being general, and mostly their semantics is only specified informally. This makes it harder for tools to communicate, as well as for users to provide relevant information to them. Here, we propose a small but general assertion language for value constraints including IPET flow facts, which is an important class of annotations for WCET analysis tools. We show how to express interesting properties in this language, we propose some syntactic conveniences, and we give the language a formal semantics. The language could be used directly as a tool-independent annotation language, or as a meta-language to give exact semantics to existing value annotation and flow fact formats.


author = {Bj{\"o}rn Lisper},
title = {Principles for Value Annotation Languages},
isbn = {978-3-939897-69-9},
editor = {Heiko Falk},
pages = {1--10},
month = {July},
year = {2014},
booktitle = {14th International Workshop on Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis},
publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik, Dagstuhl Publishing, Germany},
url = {}