You are required to read and agree to the below before accessing a full-text version of an article in the IDE article repository.

The full-text document you are about to access is subject to national and international copyright laws. In most cases (but not necessarily all) the consequence is that personal use is allowed given that the copyright owner is duly acknowledged and respected. All other use (typically) require an explicit permission (often in writing) by the copyright owner.

For the reports in this repository we specifically note that

  • the use of articles under IEEE copyright is governed by the IEEE copyright policy (available at
  • the use of articles under ACM copyright is governed by the ACM copyright policy (available at
  • technical reports and other articles issued by M‰lardalen University is free for personal use. For other use, the explicit consent of the authors is required
  • in other cases, please contact the copyright owner for detailed information

By accepting I agree to acknowledge and respect the rights of the copyright owner of the document I am about to access.

If you are in doubt, feel free to contact

Empirical Validation of the Architecture Quality Assurance Framework (AQAF): A Technical Report


Publication Type:

Report - MRTC


Mälardalen Real-Time Research Centre, Mälardalen University




Architecture engineering is essential to achieve dependability of critical embedded systems and affects large parts of the system life cycle. Architectural faults may consequently cause substantial costs and devastating harm. Verification in architecture engineering, known as architecture-based verification, should therefore be holistically and systematically managed in the development of critical embedded systems, from requirements analysis and architecture design to implementation and maintenance. The Architecture Quality Assurance Framework (AQAF) for critical embedded systems modeled in the Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL) has been developed to address this issue. By means of a standardized representation of system architectures in AADL, formal methods can be applied to perform rigorous verification of complex systems. The framework provides a holistic set of verification techniques with a common formalism and semantic domain, architecture flow graphs and timed automata, enabling completely formal and automated verification processes covering a broad area of architecture engineering. More precisely, the framework includes model checking, model-based testing, and selective regression verification techniques for the detection of architecture design and implementation faults, as well as faults introduced at design updates. In this technical report, we present an empirical validation of AQAF where it is applied to a safety-critical train control system. The objective of the case study is to assess fault-finding effectiveness and resource efficiency. The method of fault injection is used to ensure coverage of fault types and to produce an adequate data set from which resource consumption statistically can be assessed. Results suggest an effective fault-finding capacity and an efficient use.


author = {Andreas Johnsen and Kristina Lundqvist and Paul Pettersson and Kaj H{\"a}nninen and Martin Torelm},
title = {Empirical Validation of the Architecture Quality Assurance Framework (AQAF): A Technical Report},
month = {January},
year = {2016},
publisher = {M{\"a}lardalen Real-Time Research Centre, M{\"a}lardalen University},
url = {}