You are required to read and agree to the below before accessing a full-text version of an article in the IDE article repository.

The full-text document you are about to access is subject to national and international copyright laws. In most cases (but not necessarily all) the consequence is that personal use is allowed given that the copyright owner is duly acknowledged and respected. All other use (typically) require an explicit permission (often in writing) by the copyright owner.

For the reports in this repository we specifically note that

  • the use of articles under IEEE copyright is governed by the IEEE copyright policy (available at
  • the use of articles under ACM copyright is governed by the ACM copyright policy (available at
  • technical reports and other articles issued by M‰lardalen University is free for personal use. For other use, the explicit consent of the authors is required
  • in other cases, please contact the copyright owner for detailed information

By accepting I agree to acknowledge and respect the rights of the copyright owner of the document I am about to access.

If you are in doubt, feel free to contact

Schedule Reparability: Increasing Time-Triggered Network Recovery from Link Failures

Publication Type:

Conference/Workshop Paper


The time-triggered communication paradigm has been shown to satisfy temporal isolation while providing end to end delay guarantees through the synthesis of an offline schedule. However, this paradigm has severe flexibility limitations as any unpredicted change not anticipated by the schedule, such as a component failure, might result in a loss of frames. A typical solution is to use redundancy or replace and update the schedule offline anew. With the ever increase in size of networks and the need to reduce costs, supplementary solutions that enhance the reliability of such networks are also desired. In this paper, we introduce a repair algorithm capable of reacting to unpredicted link failures. The algorithm quickly modifies the schedule such that all frames are transmitted again within their timing guarantees. We found that the success of our algorithm increases significantly with the existence of empty slots spread over the schedule, an opposite approach compared to packing frames, commonly used in the literature. We propose a new ILP formulation that includes a maximization of frame and link intermissions to stretch empty slots over the schedule. Our results show that we can repair with 90% success rate within milliseconds to a valid schedule compared to a few minutes needed to re-schedule the whole network.


author = {Francisco Pozo and Guillermo Rodriguez-Navas and Hans Hansson},
title = {Schedule Reparability: Increasing Time-Triggered Network Recovery from Link Failures},
month = {September},
year = {2018},
url = {}