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Efficient and Effective Generation of Test Cases for Pedestrian Detection – Search-based Software Testing of Baidu Apollo in SVL


Hamid Ebadi , Mahshid Helali Moghadam, Markus Borg , Gregory Gay , Afonso Fontes , Kasper Socha

Publication Type:

Conference/Workshop Paper


The Third IEEE International Conference on Artificial Intelligence Testing


With the growing capabilities of autonomous vehicles, there is a higher demand for sophisticated and pragmatic quality assurance approaches for machine learning-enabled systems in the automotive AI context. The use of simulation-based prototyping platforms provides the possibility for early-stage testing, enabling inexpensive testing and the ability to capture critical corner-case test scenarios. Simulation-based testing properly complements conventional on-road testing. However, due to the large space of test input parameters in these systems, the efficient generation of effective test scenarios leading to the unveiling of failures is a challenge. This paper presents a study on testing pedestrian detection and emergency braking system of the Baidu Apollo autonomous driving platform within the SVL simulator. We propose an evolutionary automated test generation technique that generates failure-revealing scenarios for Apollo in the SVL environment. Our approach models the input space using a generic and flexible data structure and benefits a multi-criteria safety-based heuristic for the objective function targeted for optimization. This paper presents the results of our proposed test generation technique in the 2021 IEEE Autonomous Driving AI Test Challenge. In order to demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of our approach, we also report the results from a baseline random generation technique. Our evaluation shows that the proposed evolutionary test case generator is more effective at generating failure-revealing test cases and provides higher diversity between the generated failures than the random baseline.


author = {Hamid Ebadi and Mahshid Helali Moghadam and Markus Borg and Gregory Gay and Afonso Fontes and Kasper Socha},
title = {Efficient and Effective Generation of Test Cases for Pedestrian Detection – Search-based Software Testing of Baidu Apollo in SVL},
month = {August},
year = {2021},
booktitle = {The Third IEEE International Conference on Artificial Intelligence Testing},
url = {}