You are required to read and agree to the below before accessing a full-text version of an article in the IDE article repository.

The full-text document you are about to access is subject to national and international copyright laws. In most cases (but not necessarily all) the consequence is that personal use is allowed given that the copyright owner is duly acknowledged and respected. All other use (typically) require an explicit permission (often in writing) by the copyright owner.

For the reports in this repository we specifically note that

  • the use of articles under IEEE copyright is governed by the IEEE copyright policy (available at
  • the use of articles under ACM copyright is governed by the ACM copyright policy (available at
  • technical reports and other articles issued by M‰lardalen University is free for personal use. For other use, the explicit consent of the authors is required
  • in other cases, please contact the copyright owner for detailed information

By accepting I agree to acknowledge and respect the rights of the copyright owner of the document I am about to access.

If you are in doubt, feel free to contact

Non-Intrusive Hardware/Software Monitoring for Single- and Multiprocessor Real-Time Systems

Publication Type:

Report - MRTC




Run-time observability in hardware and software is a requirement for testing and debugging any computer system. In real-time systems, and in particular distributed such, it is however difficult to obtain observability without altering the systems timing behaviour. Monitoring techniques using passive hardware have been used to extract software execution traces non-instrusively to the system. However, the passive hardware techniques such as in-circuit emulation, logic analysis, and oscilloscope, are not keeping pace with todays system speeds (>200 MHz) and the highly integrated chips and circuit-boards that obstructs hardware probing. <br> In this paper, we present MAMon (Multiprocessor Application Monitor), a non-intrusive hardware-based monitoring system that can monitor logic-level and system-level events in single/multiprocessor real-time systems. The MAMon system integrates a hardware Probe-Unit on-chip (FPGA or ASIC) with a hardware-based Real-Time Kernel. The Probe-Unit collects, time-stamps, and transfers all events on the target, via a parallel cable, to a database on a host computer system. A monitoring tool environment, where the event-database is a central part, provides a structured framework for implementing debug and post analysis facilities. The paper will also describe the hardware-based Real-Time Kernel (RTU) and how MAMon connects to it in order to extract the system/process-level information non-intrusively.


@techreport{El Shobaki225,
author = {Mohammed El Shobaki},
title = {Non-Intrusive Hardware/Software Monitoring for Single- and Multiprocessor Real-Time Systems},
number = {ISSN 1404-3041 ISRN MDH-MRTC-34/2001-1-SE},
month = {April},
year = {2001},
url = {}