You are required to read and agree to the below before accessing a full-text version of an article in the IDE article repository.

The full-text document you are about to access is subject to national and international copyright laws. In most cases (but not necessarily all) the consequence is that personal use is allowed given that the copyright owner is duly acknowledged and respected. All other use (typically) require an explicit permission (often in writing) by the copyright owner.

For the reports in this repository we specifically note that

  • the use of articles under IEEE copyright is governed by the IEEE copyright policy (available at
  • the use of articles under ACM copyright is governed by the ACM copyright policy (available at
  • technical reports and other articles issued by M‰lardalen University is free for personal use. For other use, the explicit consent of the authors is required
  • in other cases, please contact the copyright owner for detailed information

By accepting I agree to acknowledge and respect the rights of the copyright owner of the document I am about to access.

If you are in doubt, feel free to contact

Mobility, Residual Energy, and Link Quality Aware Multipath Routing in MANETs with Q-Learning Algorithm


Valmik Tilwari , Kaharudin Dimyati , M. N. Hindia , Anas Fattouh, Iraj Amiri

Publication Type:

Journal article


Applied Sciences--Special Issue "Emerging Paradigms and Architectures for Industry 4.0 Applications"



To facilitate connectivity to the internet, the easiest way to establish communication infrastructure in areas affected by natural disaster and in remote locations with intermittent cellular services and/or lack of Wi-Fi coverage is to deploy an end-to-end connection over Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs). However, the potentials of MANETs are yet to be fully realized as existing MANETs routing protocols still suffer some major technical drawback in the areas of mobility, link quality, and battery constraint of mobile nodes between the overlay connections. To address these problems, a routing scheme named Mobility, Residual energy and Link quality Aware Multipath (MRLAM) is proposed for routing in MANETs. The proposed scheme makes routing decisions by determining the optimal route with energy efficient nodes to maintain the stability, reliability, and lifetime of the network over a sustained period of time. The MRLAM scheme uses a Q-Learning algorithm for the selection of optimal intermediate nodes based on the available status of energy level, mobility, and link quality parameters, and then provides positive and negative reward values accordingly. The proposed routing scheme reduces energy cost by 33% and 23%, end to end delay by 15% and 10%, packet loss ratio by 30.76% and 24.59%, and convergence time by 16.49% and 11.34% approximately, compared with other well-known routing schemes such as Multipath Optimized Link State Routing protocol (MP-OLSR) and MP-OLSRv2, respectively. Overall, the acquired results indicate that the proposed MRLAM routing scheme significantly improves the overall performance of the network.


author = {Valmik Tilwari and Kaharudin Dimyati and M. N. Hindia and Anas Fattouh and Iraj Amiri},
title = {Mobility, Residual Energy, and Link Quality Aware Multipath Routing in MANETs with Q-Learning Algorithm},
volume = {11},
number = {3345},
month = {March},
year = {2019},
journal = {Applied Sciences--Special Issue {"}Emerging Paradigms and Architectures for Industry 4.0 Applications{"}},
url = {}